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    曾國藩:真正聰明的人,都是下笨功夫

    作者:張宏杰來源:《發現》發表于:2017-03-03 21:59:42閱讀:
    笨拙的人沒有智力資本,因此比別人更虛心;笨拙的人從小接受挫折教育,因此抗擊打能力特別強;笨拙的人不懂取巧,遇到問題只知硬鉆過去,因此不留死角。正是這與眾不同的"笨拙",成就了曾國藩非同一般的精明和高明。



    湘鄉流傳著這樣一個笑話,說是曾國藩在家讀書,一篇短短的文章,朗讀了多少篇還背不下來。一小偷本想等他入睡之后偷竊。可是左等右等,就是不見他睡。小偷忍無可忍,跳出來大叫:"這種笨腦袋,讀什么書?!"

    這個笑話并非空穴來鳳。曾氏一族的天資并不出色。曾國藩的父親曾麟書笨得出名,一生考了十七次秀才,一直到四十三歲,才勉強過關。

    但另一方面,曾國藩又是個極為"精明"的人。

    他是一個高明的軍事家、戰略家。太平軍起,舉國束手無策。只有他獨僻蹊徑,以超人之膽識創立湘軍。在從皇帝到大臣或急于求成,或悲觀絕望,滿朝如無頭蒼蠅,紛無定計之際,曾國藩提出了"以上制下、取建瓴之勢"的平定太平軍戰略,即"爭奪武昌,控制長江中游,再指向九江、安慶,進而攻陷天京".事后證明,這是一個極為高明的戰略,清王朝正是在這個戰略指導下取得了最后的勝利。

    他非常善于審時度勢。自古功臣,像他這樣善于把握進退者不多。剿滅太平軍之后,他的功名事業如日中天,此時他卻極度冷靜,在大盛之中察覺大衰的先機,毅然上疏請求辭去節制四省的大權,并采取果斷手段,裁撤自己的權力之本——湘軍。他一生出將入相,沒有大的蹉跌,在傳統官場上像他這樣的成功者并不多見。



    他深通官場韜略,官場功夫如同太極高手,善于化解種種難題于無形之中。曾國藩的秘書趙烈文的日記中記載了這樣一個細節:曾國荃攻打南京不下之際,朝廷令李鴻章協助進攻。李鴻章一方面不想奪了曾家兄弟的首功,向曾家邀功買好;另一方面又想把抗旨之責推給曾氏,因此私下到處解釋,做了很多小動作。

    而曾國藩的對策是回復給皇帝一道辭氣卑約的奏折,堅請派李鴻章前來,不望有功,但求無過,言語懇摯,不溫不火。相形之下,李氏的小算盤一目了然。趙烈文評價說,曾國藩的手段,平直無奇,卻實高于李數倍。

    僅舉此數端就可看出,曾氏的"精明"已臻最高層次,實非常人可比。正是與眾不同的"笨拙",成就了曾國藩非同一般的精明和高明。 曾國藩的人生哲學很獨特,那就是尚"拙".他說:"天下之至拙,能勝天下之至巧。"

    曾國藩能夠打通科舉這條路,靠的完全是"笨勁".父親要求他,不讀懂上一句,不讀下一句。不讀完這本書,不摸下一本書。不完成一天的學習任務,絕不睡覺。他不懂什么"技巧",什么"捷徑",只知道一條路走到黑,不撞南墻不回頭。這種"笨拙"的學習方式,在他身上培養起超乎常人的勤奮、吃苦、踏實精神。

    積苦力學的經歷給了曾國藩獨特的啟示,他發現笨拙有笨拙的好處。笨拙的人沒有智力資本,因此比別人更虛心。笨拙的人從小接受挫折教育,因此抗擊打能力特別強。笨拙的人不懂取巧,遇到問題只知硬鉆過去,因此不留死角。相反,那些有小聰明的人不愿下"困勉之功",遇到困難繞著走,基礎打得松松垮垮。所以,"拙"看起來慢,其實卻是最快,因為這是扎扎實實的成功,不留遺弊。

    雖然曾國藩考秀才考了九年,但是一旦開竅之后,后面的路就越來越順。中了秀才的第二年,他就中了舉人,又四年,又高中進士。而那些早早進了學的同學,后來卻連舉人也沒出來一個。他總結自身經驗,多次說這得益于自己基礎打得好,所以"讀書立志,須以困勉之功"。



    曾國藩打仗靠的也是笨拙精神。曾國藩一生善打愚戰、笨戰,不善打巧戰。

    他打仗不貪小利,不求奇謀,踏踏實實,穩扎穩打。他說:"打仗要打個穩字。"他一生不打無準備、無把握之仗。他花極大心血去研究敵我雙方情況、戰斗的部署、后勤供應、出現不利情況如何救援等等,指導每個環節都算到了,算透了,才下定打仗的決心。

    曾國藩一生待人接物更是以誠為本,以拙為用。他一生要求自己"不說大話,不求虛名",做事"情愿人占我的便宜斷不肯我占人的便宜".別人以巧似偽欺騙他,他卻仍然以誠以拙相待。

    曾國藩說到做到。左宗棠在"瑜亮情緒"的促使下,一生不服曾國藩,始則挖苦打擊,終則以怨報德,曾國藩卻終生未還一手。李鴻章作為他的弟子,也時常和他耍心眼、逞私心。曾國藩卻因為愛李之才,始終不改對李鴻章的關心、愛護、包容、提攜。李鴻章因此終生感激涕零,到晚年更開口不離"我老師"三個字。這個事因為這種質樸的為人處世方式,曾國藩一生朋友極多,麾下謀士如云,猛將如雨,指揮如意,得道多助,成就了"洪楊一役"的最終勝利。

    當然,曾國藩最有意義的"笨拙",還是他的思維方式,正是"扎實徹底"的思維方式,使曾國藩避免了幾千年來"中國式思維"的局限和弱點。

    中國式思維尚直覺,重體悟,善類比,卻輕邏輯。那些才子、文人的思緒常如天馬行空,不循規矩,任意跳躍,因此很容易跳過真理與謬誤之間那小小的一步距離

    而西方思維的最大特別是重視實證、重視邏輯、重視差別。西方人從量化分析事物間的不同之處入手,沿著"現象—差別—差別的擴大—精確量化—創新"的思維路徑前進,因此能發展出卓越的理性思維,建立起嚴密的學術體系。

    曾國藩的思維方式與西方式思維不謀而合。曾國藩的思維方式因為其"笨拙踏實",在中國人中達到了少有的嚴密程度。



    曾國藩式思維的秘訣。每遇到一件事,他都要從正反兩方面去看。反復琢磨,細細分析。而"正""反"這兩個方面,他也要進行細分,把"正"面再分兩面,分析它的正反。同理,"負"面也自有其正反。他把這件事中包含的每一個因素都研究到位,不使有一點含混不清之處。這樣分析下去,對這件事物就會觀察得分外透徹。

    曾國藩說,自己"天分不甚高明,專賴學問以求精明".曾國藩一生經歷千難萬險,處理過無數大事,大體都很得當。其過人之處就是不怕費心費力,對事物進行不留死角的深入分析。在對事物進行了精到分析的基礎上,再找出要害,把握關鍵。每次處理完了之后,還要總結經驗教訓,為下一次作參考。

    曾國藩的精明,就是建立在這樣的笨拙之上,這樣的絞盡腦汁殫精竭慮之上的。確實,"笨"到極致就是"聰明","拙"到極點就成了"巧"。
    本文來源于古典文學網www.ncooo.com),轉載請保留原文鏈接及注明出處。
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