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    彭運生談藝錄(2)

    作者:彭運生來源:發表于:2017-10-24 00:36:56閱讀:
    彭運生談藝錄(2)
    結構與力量
    “身如菩提樹,心如明鏡臺。時時勤拂拭,莫使惹塵埃”,這是神秀寫的學佛心得;“菩提本無樹,明鏡亦非臺。本來無一物,何處有塵埃”,這是慧能寫的學佛心得。老和尚弘忍最終把衣缽傳給了慧能,換言之,慧能因為自己的詩(偈頌)而成為禪宗的一代領袖。
    慧能的詩為什么就勝過了神秀的呢?這與慧能詩的形式(結構)有關嗎?
    慧能詩形式上的特點是:第一和第二兩句都是否定句,第三句是概括性的,也就是哲理性的,第四句是一個疑問句。
    這或許算得上漢語古詩的一個基本類型,屬于此類型的詩好像都能給讀者以“萬鈞之力”的感覺。
    “有耳莫洗潁川水,有口莫食首陽蕨。含光混世貴無名,何用孤高比云月”,這是李白一首“行路難”的前四句詩,也是屬于這一類型。
    “游莫逐炎洲翠,棲莫近吳宮燕。吳宮火起焚爾窠,炎洲逐翠遭網羅。蕭條兩翅蓬蒿間,縱有鷹鹯奈若何”,李白此首“野田黃雀行”,第三和第四兩句,分別是對第二和第一兩句的內容作出解釋,總之,此詩是上所言類型的變體而已。
    “草不謝榮于春風,木不怨落于秋天。誰揮鞭策驅四運?萬物興歇皆自然”,這是李白“日出入行”中的四句詩,把第三和第四兩句交換一下位置,就完全屬于上所言類型了。實際上,只是為了押韻,李白調整了這兩句詩的位置。
    “君不見黃河之水天上來,奔流到海不復回;君不見高堂明鏡悲白發,朝如青絲暮成雪。人生得意須盡歡,莫使金樽空對月”,李白此六句詩,只需把“莫使”改成“怎能”,它就完完整整地屬于此類型,只是容量大了許多。
    李白稱得上這一類型作品的大師。
    “飄風不終朝,驟雨不終日。孰為此者?天地。天地尚不能久,而況于人乎”,這是《老子》第二十三章的一段文字。中間的三句“孰為此者?天地。天地尚不能久”,其實可以合成一句——“造成飄風和驟雨的天地尚且不能使之長久”。換言之,被濃縮之后的這段話,明顯的屬于慧能和李白詩的那一類型。
    類型不是某個詩人靈機一動的結果,而是流溢出某種十分古老的意味。越是有古老意味,就越是能帶來力量感。
    “攻城不怕堅,攻書莫畏難。科學有險阻,苦戰能過關”,這是葉劍英的詩“攻關”。如果把第四句改成疑問句,這首詩就完全屬于上所言慧能詩的類型了,或許正因為第四句是“苦戰能過關”,全詩就不能讓讀者感覺酣暢淋漓。實際上,決不是任何“苦戰”都能夠導致“過關”。
    實際上,這一類型的詩,連李白也不是想寫就能寫出來的。“有身莫犯飛龍鱗,有手莫辮猛虎須”,這是李白“對雪醉后贈王歷陽”的前兩句詩,但最終也沒有得到其他部分的呼應,讓讀者感覺不快。
    本文來源于古典文學網www.ncooo.com),轉載請保留原文鏈接及注明出處。
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