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    清明節的文化意蘊

    作者:山爺來源:古典文學網發表于:2017-04-02 23:43:25閱讀:
    春生孳乳,萬物繁熾,天明地潔、氣象清朗。時值農歷陽春三月,乍暖輕冷,春光明媚、桃紅柳綠、生氣蓬勃,一年一度的清明節又來了。宋人吳唯信在《蘇堤清明記事》中描寫道:“梨花風起正清明,游子尋春半出城,日暮笙歌收拾去,萬株楊柳屬流鶯。”蟄居一冬的人們,脫下厚厚的冬裝,暫別城市的煩擾,扶老攜幼,走出家門,投身大自然,祭祀掃墓,“祭先烈”“敬先賢”“憶先人”;踏青春游,插柳射柳,放風箏,蕩秋千,一派情趣盎然。

    清明節,凝聚著傳統文化豐富而雋永的內在意蘊,寄寓著炎黃子孫慎終追遠的美好而繾綣的生命情愫,積淀著華夏兒女除舊迎新的成長與壯大的智慧營養,繁盛了代代國人樸素與虔誠的心靈家園。在這生機勃勃的時空境界中,先民們體驗著自然造化對于塑造生命與滋養生命的偉大力量,發出了深沉的人生吟詠。其中,既有對時令節氣之于農耕文明意義的深刻把握:“清明前后,種瓜點豆”,“植樹造林,莫過清明”,也有對古之圣賢之于中華文化陶染的虔敬緬懷:“割肉奉君盡丹心,但愿主公常清明”;既有追念親人亡靈、招撫逝者游魂的悠悠哀思:“紙灰飛作白蝴蝶,淚血染成紅杜鵑”,亦有旅途雨絲凄迷,詩家惆悵低落的孤苦憂愁:“清明時節雨紛紛,路上行人欲斷魂”;既有傷春懷舊、吹彈離歌的苦澀愁緒:“清明天氣,永日愁如醉”,又有相將踏青去、陶陶醉綠野的恬然怡樂:“況是清明好天氣,不妨游衍莫忘歸”。這是一種至情至性的人生哲理的樸實蘊藉,這是一種復雜、本質的生命情懷的詩意激蕩,千百年以來,文人騷客創作的卷帙浩繁、蕩滌人心的詩詞歌賦,恒久傳唱。

    清明節掃墓與踏青,本來是兩個截然不同的文化主題,發展中不斷地被賦予既彼此獨立又相互關聯的文化意義,宋代以后漸次融為一體。

    清明節的主題之一是“回歸自然,辭舊迎新”。

    宋黃庭堅《清明》詩中描繪:“佳節清明桃李笑,雨足郊原草木柔。”春暖花開,氣清景明,正是結伴出戶郊游的上好時節,恰如朱熹在《春日》詩中所言:“勝日尋芳泗水濱,無邊光景一時新。等閑識得東風面,萬紫千紅總是春。”遠足踏青,游春賞景,插柳辟邪,自由地展現生命的天然情趣,與山川湖泊做全面、深情的擁抱,親近、享受大自然的清新,自發地生成活潑而溫婉的和諧精神,可謂順應天時,有助于吸納天地宇宙純陽之氣,驅散積郁寒氣和拋卻抑郁心情,促進愉悅心情,強身健體,冀求達到一種天人和諧一體的理想的生存境界。隋朝時期,春游踏青在全國就頗為流行。展子虔所作的《游春圖》展示桃杏爭艷時節,波光瀲滟,湖天一色,青山聳峙,江流無際,花團錦簇,人們春游泛舟,徜徉在青山綠水之間,好不閑適自在。唐代詩人杜甫也曾記載皇家游春踏青的盛景,“三月三日天地新,長安水邊多麗人。”唐朝張萱名畫《虢國夫人游春圖》再現了唐代婦女騎馬游春的盛景。宋時踏青之風盛行,畫家張擇端的風俗畫《清明上河圖》生動地描繪出以汴京外汴河為中心的清明時節的熱鬧情景。在這一畫卷,畫面人物之多,牲畜之眾,船只之盛,車轎之廣,堪稱清明踏青之盛況。 白居易的《春游》詩“逢春不游樂,但恐是癡人。”春光明媚的日子里,就應該瀟瀟灑灑去游樂。這些珍惜光陰,及時游樂人生的絕詩佳畫,正是追求天人和諧一體的理想的生存境界心境的寫照。千百年來,踏青春游漸成了一種儀式,清明節顯然充代了一種辭舊迎新的過渡儀式的作用,透露的是季節交替的信息,象征著新季節、新希望、新生命、新循環的開始,引導國民普遍的心儀踐行。

    清明節的主題之二是“追思先人,催護生者”。

    中國傳統節日有貴人倫,重親情的顯著特點。人們把祭祀先人與中華民族重視孝道、慎終追遠的民族性格直接聯系起來,清明節俗體現了中國人感恩、固本的道德意識,強調對“先德”的懷念和感謝,其文化意義類似西方感恩節。清明節祭祖掃墓、追念先人功德的活動,與中國文化深層的祖先崇拜、孝悌文化之間有著深刻的關連,而這種文化正是中國社會幾千年來得以和諧穩定發展的支柱,有助于在古人與今人、前人與后人之間維護民族、親情血脈相連的代際關系,并對生者起到潛移默化的情感教育作用,以求“民德歸厚矣”,進而促進人與人、人與自然之間的和諧相處,這也是清明節具有強大生命力的民間根基,加之歷朝一些明智官方的提倡和律令,這種根基日顯穩固。到唐肅宗時,將寒食清明假期由以前4天增加到7天——在中國節假日史上,清明節首次成為了真正意義的“黃金周”,足見官方重視。

    “追思先人,催護生者”,實際上反映了中國人豁達的生死觀。對生的渴求,死的恐懼,是人之常情。清明節從悲到樂的節日過程,也是人們追思先人、感恩父母、增進親情、享受生活的過程,領悟生之短暫與珍貴,死之無奈與必然,啟迪著人們更達觀地對待生死,舒緩面對生死的緊張心理。孔子的“子不語怪力亂神”,莊子的“齊生死”,把生與死等量齊觀,不分軒輊,把生命看成是一種自然過程,從這個意義上說,中華民族是一個生命韌性特別頑強的民族。由此而派生出對于生命的兩種狀態:一是對生命抱有一種順應自然的態度——“知足常樂”的生存觀;二是對死亡依然是一種淡然的態度——“視死如歸”的死亡觀。

    我們相信,清明節這種本真而高潔的情趣與智慧,集中而深刻地表達了上述兩點思想與文化內涵,它們蘊涵于我們土生土長的傳統文化之中,在現代文明的催護下,必定要茁壯成長為飽蘊民族精神的參天大樹,傳統節日煥發出生機和活力。
    本文來源于古典文學網www.ncooo.com),轉載請保留原文鏈接及注明出處。
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