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    重讀三國,蜀漢為何在兩個月內就亡國?

    作者:未知來源:冷熱軍事史發表于:2017-02-07 00:32:35閱讀:
    諸葛亮七年內五次伐魏,未竟其功,兵疲民困。諸葛亮死后,蔣琬和費祎基本停止大規模戰爭,休士養民。不過,姜維掌權后,又開始大舉北伐。


    蔣琬(?-246年)

    姜維主動伐魏共有十一次之多。其中大勝一次 , 小勝三次,不分勝負五次,大敗一次 , 小敗一次 。考慮到蜀魏國力對比,這個戰績已算驕人,而且前幾次北伐,姜維尚未完全掌握軍權,出征軍隊不過萬人。可是,姜維最后一次北伐后僅一年,蜀國就被曹魏滅亡,為何形勢會急轉直下?這要從蜀國的漢中郡說起。

    ▍漢中地理位置極其重要,易守難攻

    位于關中平原南部和巴蜀北部之間的漢中,西起陽平關(今陜西省勉縣),東到湖北荊山,北有秦嶺,南有巴山,地勢險峻,群山環繞、峽谷縱橫,自古就是易守難攻、兵家必爭之地。

    214年劉備剛占領益州,曹操先下手為強,于次年拿下漢中。漢中在地緣上既是進攻關中隴右之跳板,也是巴蜀之咽喉,無漢中則無蜀。果然,曹操占領漢中后益州人心不穩,“蜀中一日數十驚,守將雖斬之而不能安也”。可惜,曹操沒有進一步用主力進攻益州,僅留夏侯淵鎮守,張郃入侵巴中。


    劉備(161-223年)

    劉備穩定鞏固益州后,于218年苦戰奪得漢中。曹操親率大軍來爭,但劉備占據漢中險要之地,拒不出戰,并派黃忠、趙云截取曹軍糧草,曹操只能退兵。占領漢中,同時擁有益州和荊州,劉備集團達到了軍事勝利的頂峰。

    試想漢中在曹魏手里,蜀漢會面臨什么局面?無需翻越漢中秦嶺、巴山、荊山的險關和狹道,曹魏大軍可直接攻擊益州本土,蜀國邊界無險可守,防不勝防。一定程度上,正是因為牢牢控制了漢中地區,蕞爾小國的蜀漢才能維持近半個世紀,并敢于多年進攻曹魏。諸葛亮五次北伐,就是主力坐鎮漢中,以之為前線大本營。

    ▍姜維戰略調整失策

    姜維是涼州天水人,了解涼州和隴右(位于關中、漢中之西)一帶的羌胡風俗。他相信以羌人勢力為羽翼,集中蜀漢兵力奪占隴右,進而居高臨下虎視關中,可撼動曹魏。相比于漢中,武都和陰平兩郡更有利于經略隴右,姜維北伐大多是從這兩郡發動。蜀漢軍隊主力駐扎之地已由漢中轉移至武都和陰平。


    蜀漢疆域

    258年,姜維再次調整漢中兵力部署,埋下了蜀國滅亡的禍根。他提出了所謂的“斂兵聚谷”策略:撤銷漢中外圍的險要據點,收縮兵力,企圖誘敵深入,殲之于內。這改變了自劉備以來蜀漢據敵于外的作戰模式。實際上,當年曹爽十萬大軍來攻,蜀軍就是憑借漢中險關興勢和黃金等地,阻退曹軍。

    姜維新政之下,漢中兵力集中于漢、樂二城,守軍各五千人,陽平關守兵兩、三千人,加上其他地方少量守兵,總數少于兩萬,削減的兵力后撤至漢壽(在今四川廣元,離漢中不遠)。與此同時,姜維在武都和陰平建立七處防守要塞,可見姜維用兵重心仍在隴右地區。

    262年,姜維最后一次北伐失敗,回成都復命,諸葛瞻、董厥以及專權的宦官黃皓不滿姜維窮兵黷武,欲奪其兵權。姜維畏懼,帶領漢壽部分兵力赴陰平郡沓中屯田避禍。這樣,漢中地區本就薄弱的兵力又遭削減。


    姜維(202-264年)

    漢中是蜀國的關鍵要害之地,不宜冒險。姜維偏反其道而行之,放棄地形優勢和慣用作戰手法,代價太高,敵軍輕易可進入漢中腹地,其次漢中守軍嚴重不足,如何阻擊入侵之敵?本來漢壽的兵力可以支援漢中,但是姜維屯田沓中后,漢壽之兵恐怕也只能自保。沓中地處偏僻,既容易遭敵人攻擊,也與漢中相隔千里,中間山水險阻,一旦局勢危急,姜維很難及時赴援。

    ▍鐘會快速突破漢中,鄧艾滅蜀

    蜀漢后期人才匱乏,曹魏依舊人才濟濟,比如掌權者司馬昭、鐘會以及與姜維長期交戰的鄧艾。姜維如此嚴重的失誤,很快被對手發現。263年司馬昭以十八萬大軍分三路伐蜀。其中鐘會十二萬進攻漢中,鄧艾三萬兵力主攻姜維,諸葛緒三萬切斷姜維后路。


    鐘會(225-264年)

    外圍未遇抵抗, 鐘會大軍長驅直入漢中,命兩將各以一萬軍隊包圍漢、樂二城,二城遂成孤城。鐘會前鋒部隊直抵陽平關,陽平關守將蔣舒投降,傅僉戰死。陽平關失守,不但蜀漢儲備的大量糧谷物資為曹軍所得,而且南下川蜀的通道也被打開。由于姜維冒險錯誤的兵力部署和戰略調整,鐘會在一個月內就占領漢中,蜀漢北部最重要的防線崩潰。

    鄧艾一路也很快突破武都和陰平,姜維奮力擺脫被鄧艾和諸葛緒夾擊的險境,但來不及救援漢中,于是與廖化、張翼等援軍退守劍閣。至此,除了個別據點,蜀國北境全部淪陷,曹軍可經由數條蜀道進攻巴蜀。

    姜維軍隊四五萬人,據險全力防守鐘會大軍,無暇顧及鄧艾一路。鄧艾經陰平小道,冒險穿越七百里山高谷深的險地。猶如漢尼拔翻越阿爾卑斯山進入意大利,或者當年馬超兵臨成都,鄧艾部隊天降神兵般出現在巴蜀腹地,連克數城,直逼成都。后主劉禪驚恐,在主降派勸誘下投降。從鐘會進入漢中到劉禪投降,曹魏亡蜀竟然只花了不到兩個月。


    鐘會和鄧艾伐蜀路線圖

    ▍蜀漢亡國的種種原因

    比較一下姜維調整漢中兵力部署的冒險和鄧艾的冒險奇襲。姜維的冒險是戰略性、牽一發而動全身的,鄧艾的冒險是戰術性的,結果將是決定性的。鄧艾的任務原是攻取武都、陰平,阻擊姜維援助漢中,他已經很漂亮地完成任務,而且姜維被鐘會牽制,鄧艾沒有任何負擔和后顧之憂,因此這是個值得放手一搏的冒險。


    鄧艾(197-264年)

    姜維做了一個風險極高的戰略調整后,卻不親自坐鎮漢中,或者至少留在漢壽,來指揮軍隊、掌控局勢。他選擇了既遠離政治漩渦、又遠離防守中樞的沓中,連續犯下無可挽回的致命錯誤,客觀上起到了加速蜀漢滅亡的作用。

    姜維繼承了諸葛亮“以攻為守”的基本戰略,才會重兵經略隴右,有意無意地忽略了漢中防守。但諸葛亮一生謹慎,不敢冒險,也不會犯大錯,姜維才不及諸葛亮,又失之魯莽冒險,終釀大禍。

    以攻為守這個國策本身也很值得商榷。以攻為守用于局部戰役、作為戰術手段未嘗不可,但實力嚴重不對等的兩國長期抗衡,弱國以攻為守無異于自取滅亡。蜀漢國土面積、人口、經濟、人才、軍事實力都遠不及曹魏。諸葛亮為不負劉備之托興復漢室,明知不能成功,卻長期在崎嶇險峻之地徒勞兵民,他“鞠躬盡瘁、死而后已”,將蜀漢帶上了一條不歸路。


    諸葛亮(181-234年)

    蔣琬、費祎及時改變策略,休養生息,據險待敵。可惜,作為諸葛亮的軍事接班人,姜維不假思索地接受了前者的錯誤戰略,繼續無謂地耗損蜀漢國力。即使沒有削弱漢中防守和沓中避禍,蜀國也未必能存續很久。不過,把亡國責任都歸于姜維、甚至諸葛亮,是很不公平的。鄧艾還沒有圍攻成都,劉禪就決定投降,力勸劉禪投降的是光祿大夫譙周。此時,蜀國尚有近十萬可戰之兵。

    外來勢力劉備、諸葛亮奪取益州后,益州本土豪族士人雖有人獲重用,但總體上和蜀漢政權高層矛盾很深,屢遭打壓。蔣琬和費祎死后,益州本土勢力反彈,名士譙周就是其中代表人物。

    譙周雖在蜀漢做官,但對蜀漢并無感情,他竟然公開宣揚蜀漢傳二代就要亡國的讖語。腐敗昏聵的劉禪政權對這種反蜀言論竟沒有任何反應,繼續任用譙周。飽受打擊的益州土著豪族則聚族自保、坐山觀虎斗,不肯為國效力,鄧艾才能輕易攻城略地。

    宦官黃皓對蜀漢亡國也負有一定責任,首先是逼迫姜維遠赴沓中。其次,司馬昭伐蜀前,魏國的人事調動就令姜維敏銳地察覺到危險。他上表劉禪,主張派遣張翼、廖化分別駐守陽平關和陰平橋頭,加強防范。但劉禪聽信黃皓讒言,未予理睬,錯失機會。
    本文來源于古典文學網www.ncooo.com),轉載請保留原文鏈接及注明出處。
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